Introductory chemistry (X11)


Introduction General introduction to how this page is organized.
X11 Updates/Handouts This section gives information about what happened in previous classes, and plan for next class. It also links to most handouts.
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This page is for announcements during the semester. Each week, I will post a brief statement of how far we got in the previous class, and the projection for the next class. I will list any handouts, and (for most) will provide links so you can download them (see below). I will also include any other announcements, such as test coverage. I will try to post the update within a day or so of each class.

Handout files. Some files, such as the syllabus, first chapter handouts, and practice tests and quizzes, are available from the Introductory chemistry home page. In addition, I will try to make most handouts available here. Posted handouts may lack (occasional) paste-in attachments. If there are any problems with this arrangement, please let me know.

You can also access all of the handouts from the Intro Chem Handouts page. This is the page that "visitors" will probably find most useful.

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X11 Updates/Handouts

This section is maintained during the semester. This is now an archive, from Spring 2006. All the files should be available.

If you have not read the Introduction to this "Updates/Handouts" page, please go to Introduction.

Please let me know if you have trouble accessing any files; sometimes, your comment is the way I find out that there is a problem.

Special file available:

Link to my page on bird flu: Biotechnology in the News (BITN): Influenza. Mentioned in class. I encourage you to look around other parts of the BITN pages. Comments/questions welcomed. You can also reach the BITN pages from my home page.

Spring 2006:

Entries in this section are in reverse chronological order (i.e., most recent first).

Last update in this section: May 30, 2006.

Class 14, May 11. Final exam. I will be available about 6:00, for questions or early starts.
Actual: We did it.
1 Handout: Exam (not posted here).

Sample tests.

Official: Final exam will emphasize Ch 11 through 19. (I will write questions almost entirely for these chapters. However, the material is inherently cumulative, and much material from earlier chapters is used while working on these chapters.)

I suggest that you think of the exam as covering four sets of chapters: 11-12, 4-13-15, 16-17, and 18-19. To a first approximation, the test will have about the same number of points for each of those blocks. Ch 16-17 coverage is likely to be a bit higher; these are major chapters, and I noted that I "guarantee" there will be a dilution problem and a net ionic equation question. For Ch 18-19, coverage of Ch 19 will be light, since you have little time to digest it. You should be able to find which atom gained or lost electrons, given an equation, and you should be able to assign reasonable oxidation numbers.

Please bring a SASE to the exam, for exam return (along with answer sheet and course grade).

See the "end-of-course notes" handout, class 10, for more about the final exam, including exam returns.

You must sign the grade option form and turn in course evaluations before getting a final exam. See the "End-of-course notes" handout, class 10, for information about course evaluations. Also see the Supplemental information page for more information about evaluations, including suggested questions that you might address.

How about keeping the class e-mail list active with questions and comments during this final period.

If there is more homework to come in, try to mail it to me so it gets picked up Monday. (Things mailed later may get to me in time, but the odds are riskier.) Beyond that, do lots of problems, check yourself and try to work things out. E-mail or call when stuck. In general, time spent working out problems is more productive than just reading. You learn from doing!

Those not taking the exam (i.e., those signed as NC)... If you want, you can get the exam and key from me by e-mail. Best is for you to send me an e-mail request. I will send them out a week or so after the exam.

Link to my page on bird flu: Biotechnology in the News (BITN): Influenza. Mentioned in class; no relevance to X11. I encourage you to look around other parts of the BITN pages. Comments/questions welcomed. This link is also listed above, under Special files; you can always reach the BITN pages from my home page.

Class 13, May 4. Turn in Ch 16 homework, if you haven't already. Please include a SASE for quick return. More calculator sheets welcomed.
Plan: Ch 18, finish. We have introduced everything, but need a little review. Ch 19: emphasize parallels with Ch 18; also learn about oxidation numbers. Note that Sect 18.7 and 19.7 are the same, and serve to bridge these two Ch. If time permits, we can discuss some of the major ideas in Ch 20. But more important is to answer questions as needed.
We briefly reviewed Ch 18, with no new content. We covered Ch 19. We started with a single replacement reaction (Ch 8), and showed how this could be considered an electron transfer reaction. We saw how such a reaction could generate electricity; Fig 19.1.b -- a battery. We were able to see the electron movement in simple reactions because simple ions of obvious charges were involved. In more complex cases, it can be harder to see the electron movement, especially when only covalent molecules are involved. The use of oxidation numbers (ON) is a bookkeeping device that allows you to keep track of the electrons, even in more complex cases. The ON is something of a "fake charge", to help you count electrons. For monatomic ions, the charge and ON are the same. For more complex species -- covalent molecules and polyatomic ions -- one assigns ON for each atom using reasonable chemical logic. You are responsible for assigning oxidation numbers, and for identifying electron transfers.
We discussed the terms oxidation and reduction. They are more formal terms for, respectively, the loss and gain of electrons. (That is, loss of electrons = oxidation. LEO.) As so often, I think it is better to get a feel for a phenomenon before trying to learn new words. But the words oxidation and reduction are major words in chemistry, and you will need to deal with them if you go on. Note that the word redox, used to describe the reaction type, is a combination of reduction and oxidation.
We emphasized the parallels between proton transfer and electron transfer reactions; see Sect 18.7 and 19.7.
We did not get to Ch 20 at all (although some of the discussion of Kw in Ch 18 actually uses Ch 20 ideas).
Course evaluations; you must check off your name on the envelope for course evaluations before you can get an exam. See the X11 Supplemental information page for comments and suggestions about doing course evaluation.
Be sure you have signed the grade form.
At the end of class, we will officially decide on exam coverage; I will post that information here (above, with Class 14 info). Sample tests.
1 handout: course evaluation form. (not posted here)

Class 12, Apr 27. Ch 16 homework due.
Plan: Ch 16-17, finish. For Ch 16, the main point remaining is to discuss dilutions. Note that my presentation of this topic is somewhat different than the one in the book. For Ch 17, we will review net ionic equations, and briefly note the solubility rules. Ch 18, most. Note that in this late group of Ch, Ch 16 and 18 are major core chapters. In particular Ch 16 lays the groundwork for all remaining Ch.
** Ch 16-17.
* Dilutions. Note that I use a different approach than does the book. You can use either, but note that my approach emphasizes "logic" rather than simply a dilution formula. In the end, the two approaches are equivalent. See the handout for more on this, if you missed class.
* Solubility. We discussed further how interaction of solute with solvent is a factor that leads to solubility. Predicting solubility is not simple, because it involves a balance between interactions within the solute and those between solute and solvent. But understanding the latter helps.
** Ch 18. We substantially covered all of Ch 18. We introduced the Arrhenius and Bronsted models of acids and bases. You should be able to write equations for proton transfer, using the Bronsted model; you should be able to predict which way the reaction will tend to go, using the table of acid strengths. You should know the few common strong acids and bases. We talked about the ionization of water. This leads to Kw -- the equilibrium constant for the ionization of water. This is useful for calculating [H+] or [OH-], if the other one is known. (Kw is a good introduction to some of the ideas of Ch 20.) Then, pH, another way to express [H+]. If you can deal with integer pHs, you have learned the chemistry. Dealing with non-integer pHs, which of course, are common in the real world, requires a little better understanding of what logs are and requires using your calculator keys for log and antilog. We introduced some of this quickly at the end, and can review as needed next time.

I would emphasize the need for you to practice with dilutions and net ionic equations (among other things, of course). I also strongly encourage you to work with the Ch 17 quiz posted on my Intro Chem Practice Quizzes page.
Handouts: none. I used to hand out a version of the solubility rules in verse/song. However, I now have a web link to it. This is noted in the Ch 17 handout, and on my X11 Internet resources page, for Ch 17.

Class 11, Apr 20. Plan: Ch 16 all; Ch 17 good start. Ch 16 is a major core chapter. Note Ch 16 homework, due next time. Also note the extra problems that I have in the handout for some sections of Ch 16.
Actual: We discussed most of Ch 16 & 17, but skipped around a bit. For Ch 16... We discussed the basics of solutions and their vocabulary. We discussed how and why things dissolve. Remember that "like dissolves like" is a simplification. We discussed units to quantitatively specify how much solute is in a solution. We emphasized two units, percent by weight and molarity. Both of these lead to useful conversion factors between amount of solute and amount of solution. The main remaining topic from Ch 16 is dilutions, a common and useful lab procedure.
For Ch 17... The central theme is that ionic compounds contain ions. We emphasized two implications of this.
* One is the "light bulb experiment", which provides experimental evidence for the ions in solution. Further, it allows us to identify substances as electrolytes or non-electrolytes. The former can be subdivided into strong and weak electrolytes (we will see more about this in Ch 18). Ordinary ionic compounds are generally strong electrolytes, fully ionized in aqueous solution. The ions, of course, are solvated, as we learned in Ch 16.
* Recognizing that strong electrolytes really exist as ions in aqueous solution, we re-examined a typical double replacement reaction, and developed the net ionic equation. Doing this, we see that some of the ions are merely "spectators". In some ways, the net ionic equation is a more accurate representation of what actually happened. Writing net ionic equations is your key goal for Ch 17. It takes practice; go slow, and show how you get them.
2 handouts: Ch 20; this is the last "chapter handout". Test 2 answer key (not posted here).

April 13. No class. Feel free to contact me over the break.

Class 10, Apr 6. Test #2 due.
Plan: Ch 4-13-15, finish. Start Ch 16.
Actual: We finished Ch 4-13-15. For Ch 4 & 13, emphasize the intuitive logic of gas relationships, not just number crunching. We discussed the experimental development of one relationship between two gas variables, and this led to the idea of absolute (Kelvin) temperature. We noted the ideal gas law; again; emphasize your understanding of what it says, not just number crunching. In Ch 15, the priority is to get a sense of how/why molecules interact to form liquids and solids. For example, for water this happens at 100° C, under ordinary conditions, due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules. We then expanded on this to discuss other types of intermolecular interactions. Be sure to read Ch handout for coverage and priorities.
2 handouts: Ch 18-19; End-of-course notes (information about course evaluations and final exam; not posted here).

If there is a problem with picking up or turning in the test, please check with me.

If you need a periodic table (with the names of the elements), please download mine, from the Download page. (Or ask me for a paper copy in class.)

If any corrections or clarifications to test questions come up, I will send them to the class e-mail list.

Class 9, Mar 30. Test #2 handed out, due next class. Coverage is noted below; this will also be shown on the cover page of the test. Sample tests. If you haven't already done so, turn in Ch 9 homework; I encourage you to include a SASE, so you can get it back before you take the test.
Plan: Questions as needed. Ch 11 finish; main thing we need to discuss is polarity and electronegativity (EN). Ch 12, all. Ch 4-13; good start on nature of gases.
Actual: We finished Ch 11-12. We discussed electronegativity, and how it predicts bond polarity. We discussed the VSEPR model for determining shape of covalent molecules. To determine shape, be sure to do the three key steps in order: 1) draw Lewis formula (so you can see the lone pairs); 2) determine electron geometry; 3) determine molecular geometry. The lone pairs play a role in determining the shape, but are "invisible" in the "molecular geometry". You do need to know the standard terms for the shapes. One issue was how "shape" leads to molecular polarity. For symmetrical molecules, bond polarities may cancel, so that the overall molecule has no net dipole. We made a good start with Ch 4-13-15. In particular, we discussed the general properties of gases, and explored the nature of P and T.
2 handouts: Ch 16-17; Test 2 (not posted here).
Ch 16-17 handout also includes a set of supplementary questions, which are in a separate file: Ch 16 supplementary questions.

Test coverage. Ch 6-11. Most of the test will be on Ch 6-9, which are all interrelated. Coverage of Ch 10 will be light. The key idea for us is that electron configurations relate to the periodic table. Valence electrons and Lewis structures are useful in upcoming chapters. For Ch 11, coverage will also be light for this test. I would like for you to generally know about ionic and covalent bonds, how and why each forms, and which elements are likely to form each type. As a guideline, I would expect about 2 points each on Ch 10 and 11, out of a 25-30 point test. The main part of the test, again, is Ch 6-9. (No Ch 12 on this test.)
Sample tests.

Class 8, Mar 23. Ch 9 homework due. (If you let this go until next time, I encourage you to include a SASE, so you can get it back before you take the test.) At the end of class, we will decide how far Test 2 will cover. (It is obvious that Ch 6-9 will be the main focus of the Test. It will also include Ch 10, and perhaps a little of Ch 11.) Remember that Sample tests are posted.
Plan: We will finish Ch 10. 10 is a difficult but interesting chapter. There are only a few things in it that are critical for you to learn at this level. A major point is to see how the modern quantum theory of the atom relates to the PT. We will then start Ch 11-12.
Actual: We discussed Ch 10, with an emphasis that electron configurations relate to the periodic table. Note that the ideas of valence electrons and Lewis symbols, introduced in Ch 10, will be used extensively in the upcoming chapters. We made a good start on Ch 11, discussing ionic and covalent bonds, and showing how Lewis formulas help us write the structures and see the bonding for covalent compounds. Test 2 will cover Ch 6-11; see details above.
1 handout: Ch 4-13-15.

Class 7, Mar 16. Ch 7 homework due. Plan: Finish Ch 8. More types of reactions, and practice. Ch 9, which ties together Ch 6-8. Ch 10 start. Note Ch 9 homework; do this for next week.
Actual: We finished Ch 8, discussing more types of reactions. We looked at examples of chemical reactions, writing their equations and balancing them. We then did the heart of Ch 9 (Sections 1-2). We discussed how to interpret the balanced equations at both the particulate and macroscopic levels. The macroscopic interpretation says that the balancing coefficients can be thought of as numbers of moles. Thus the set of balancing coefficients gives the mole ratios of the various chemicals in the equation. This is the key transition from Ch 8 to Ch 9. Ch 9 involves doing calculations of how much of the chemicals in an equation are involved. The key is realizing that one can write conversion factors between the amounts of any two chemicals, in moles, from the balanced equation. We then extended the discussion to include energy terms, Sections 9-11. We also briefly discussed the idea of limiting reactants, Sections 6-8. The idea is simple enough, but actual chem problems are lengthy; this is an "advanced" topic for us. Remember, you learn all these Ch (6-9) by doing practice, and asking when you are stuck.
2 handouts: Ch 11-12; Jokes (not posted here).

Note the movie file on ionic bonding, listed on the X11 Internet Resources page. It may be a bit advanced for Ch 6; spend some more time with it when we get to Ch 11. A movie file such as this is most useful when studied carefully, not just casually looked at. Go through it several times, perhaps pausing and backing up.

Class 6, Mar 9. Plan: Ch 7; all. Ch 8; good start. Ch 7-8 (and 9) are all fairly short to present, but you need to do lots of practice. And use these chapters as a chance to really learn Ch 6; look things up in Ch 6 as needed. Ch 7 homework assignment is due next time.
Actual: We covered all of Ch 7. There are three main issues: formula weights, the mole, and g-mole conversions (use dimensional analysis). We started Ch 8, and discussed the basics of balancing equations. This is not fundamentally new, but takes practice to become comfortable with it. We discussed one reaction type, combustion reactions. A couple of simple combination reactions also sneaked in. All of these Ch require lots of practice!
3 handouts: Ch 9; Ch 10; Test 1 answer key (not posted here);
Ch 9 handout also includes a set of supplementary questions, which are in a separate file: Ch 9 supplementary questions.

If you missed the test, please contact me as soon as practical, phone or e-mail. If possible, please do not wait until next class.

Class 5, Mar 2. Test #1, in class, 2nd hour. Bring the class PT, your page of notes, and (scientific) calculator. See below for test coverage. For the sample test, see Class 3, below.
Plan: In hour 1, we will continue and finish Ch 6. Major issues: polyatomic ions, hydrates. But before that we will take time as needed for your questions on any class material. We will start Ch 7, even if only a brief overview; I will not assume you have read it.
Actual: We finished Ch 6. Major topics were polyatomic ions and hydrates. Polyatomic anions can be confusing. Use the book for reference, and learn the few that I highlight in the handout. We discussed hydrates, which are of practical importance. Be sure to read the handout for this Ch; there is much info on what you are and are not responsible for. Learn Ch 6 by practice, and don't get overwhelmed by it. Put things on your note sheet for Test 2 as you do Ch 6-9 work.
3 Handouts: Ch 8; Using your scientific calculator; Test #1 (not posted here).
For background and context on the calculator handout, see my Using your scientific calculator web page. If you find your model or a similar one already listed there, it is proper to use that as a baseline for your own work here. But please check the posted information carefully, and let me know if you find any suspect points on the posted pages.

Test coverage. Ch 2, 3, 5, and part of 6. In all cases, this means the chapter as outlined in the handout. For example, in Ch 3, dimensional analysis is very important, temperature conversion is not. Use the chapter handouts as a guide to priorities. If something is not clear, please ask me. Those who are working at a more advanced level, of course, are welcome and encouraged to do more.
For Ch 6, you are responsible for Sections 1-4 and 8-9. However, in the latter sections, you need not worry about the polyatomic ions for now (ions that have more than one atom in them, such as nitrate). I think that nomenclature is best learned with practice over an extended time; you will learn this by your practice with the upcoming chapters. So for this test, I want you to get into this Ch 6 material, but not get bogged down with it. I will ask something about the diatomic elements (Section 2). And I will give you a few names of compounds, and ask you to write formulas for them. (That's easier than writing names.) These formulas will include the different classes, such as binary non-metallics (Section 3), and metal-nonmetal compounds, discussed in Sections 4, 8, 9. (To be a bit picky, we will cover Section 8 but not 9; but I think reading them both is good, then worry more about 8 for now.)
There are two worksheets attached to the Ch 6 handout. Both are relevant here. The naming worksheet helps you see the three types of compounds. But for now, skip the ones with polyatomic ions. The worksheet on "Formulas of ionic compounds" emphasizes the important concept that ionic compounds are neutral. You need to be able to do these (at least those in sets A & B), so try them.
Questions about this description of test coverage? Please ask.
For the sample test, see Class 3, below.

The test will be after the break. You can leave when done. We are flexible on time. Those who work slowly or otherwise need more time are welcome to work as needed (within reason).

More homework? Any homework I get in the mail, even on Thursday, I will mark and bring to class. Even things you mail to me on Wednesday may get to me on Thursday, though that is stretching your luck. As an alternative, e-mail me key questions where you want some feedback.

Class 4, Feb 23. Homework due (see Ch 3 handout). I will return it next class. If you miss class, I encourage you to mail it to me; see (printed) syllabus for address.
Plan: We will finish Ch 5 and start Ch 6. At the end of class we will determine the official cut-off for Test 1 coverage; I will post that information here. It is "likely" that Test 1 will cover through Ch 5, plus some part of Ch 6. For the sample test, see Class 3, below.
Actual: We finished Ch 5. We finished "isotopes", which are different versions of atoms of an element differing only in the number of neutrons. To a first approximation, the neutrons do not affect chemical behavior (but see Further Reading, in the handout); however they do determine the atomic mass that we commonly use. We made a strong start on Ch 6. We spent a little time on general perspective for the Ch. One message is to be sure you know when a rule applies. Another message is to gradually learn nomenclature with practice. We discussed Sections 1-4 and 8-9. Sect 2 is on the elements that normally occur in the diatomic form; you need to know these. We then discussed the three major classes of binary compounds that have different naming rules. These are discussed in Section 3 and in 4,8,9. Sect 3 is on naming "binary nonmetallic" compounds; you need to know how to do this, and also when the rule applies. Sect 4 is on ions, and Sect 8-9 are on ionic formulas and names. You should be able to write formulas for ionic compounds, given the names. What we skipped for now (Sect 5-7) is on more complex ions; we'll continue with these next time. Therefore, Test 1 includes Ch 6 Sections 1-4 and 8-9, but no polyatomic ions. More about this above, with test coverage info.
1 handout: Ch 7. Attached is a worksheet: Exploring the chemistry of the earth's crust. For the "Crust" worksheet, the accompanying spreadsheet includes the graph that is part of the handout, plus the table on which it is based. Answer sheet for Crust worksheet.

Class 3, Feb 16. Plan: Questions on Ch 2, or other? Finish Ch 3. The Ch contains a lot of odds and ends; we will emphasize only some things; see the handout. We will talk about how the way you make a measurement leads to the idea of significant figures (Sect 5). And we will talk about density, and how dimensional analysis can help guide you with density problems (Sect 8). We should start Ch 5; try to at least browse the first sections of this chapter before class.
Actual: For Ch 2, we discussed some of the questions with particulate diagrams. We tried to emphasize not just getting a one word answer to a question, but how to interpret the pictures, and express them as chemical equations. We finished Ch 3. We emphasized the idea of significant figures (SF); the idea comes from the "errors" (uncertainties) inherent in making measurements. How you write a measurement conveys the quality of that measurement. The calculation rules for SF are designed to propagate that quality information. There may seem to be a lot of picky little rules about SF. Remember what the purpose is. Learn SF by doing examples, and ask when an example comes up that bothers you. We also discussed density, both as an idea (the proportionality between mass and volume) and as an application of dimensional analysis. We started Ch 5. We discussed Dalton's model, and then we developed a simple modern view of the atom. We discussed the three key sub-atomic particles. We briefly discussed the logic of the Rutherford experiment, which demonstrated the nucleus; you are not really responsible for this, but I hope it gave some sense of how all this atomic model was developed. We discussed isotopes, whose main interest for us is how they lead to the "odd" atomic weights shown on the periodic table. We have discussed the main parts of this Ch.
3 handouts:
* Ch 6. Attached to it are the following two items, which are available here as separate files: Naming chemicals worksheet; worksheet on ions and ionic compounds;
* Test information + Sample test. The first part is at test info. The test itself, along with the answer key, all future sample tests and keys, and other test-related information, is at Intro Chem (X11) Tests: Sample tests, with answer keys.
* The 3rd handout is an optional supplement on Dimensional Analysis; it is posted on my Chemistry practice problems page, along with some other self-help materials.

The answer keys for the "Naming chemicals" worksheet are posted. In fact, the first page includes an expanded introduction and does include the questions. Web page: Naming chemicals, with answers. You can also do this worksheet interactively at the web site.

Student comment: Pace is too slow (loosely paraphrased).
Response. Several points:
* Remember that the course serves students with a range of needs and backgrounds. And it is an introductory course, with no chem pre-requisite.
* We tend to start slow, to get everyone together, and then do speed up some, especially for 2nd half of the course.
* Regardless... Customize the course to meet your needs. Ch 2 may be basic for some. If you also find Ch 3 basic, do the material we skip or de-emphasize, and work on the extra problems in the Dimensional Analysis handout; some are fairly challenging. Do the General and Challenging questions in the book; they are always somewhat harder than the basic questions that go with each section -- partly because they are ungrouped (i.e., not designated for a particular topic), so you need to think more about how to approach them.
* If you really find everything easy, maybe you are already ready for Chem 1. For those who have had some chem before and want to go on, the purpose of X11 is to bring the chem background to the foreground for you. Old things do come back, and may even make more sense the next time around (because you have a better idea where we are going, thus how things fit together). It's hard to know in advance whether that will be easy or hard.
See X11 Supplementary Information for more ideas about customizing the course to meet your needs. Happy to discuss with anyone individually.

Class 2, Feb 9. Plan: We will finish Ch 2, on the general nature of matter. Note that the Ch contains a lot of vocabulary that may be new. Emphasize using the terms, not memorizing definitions. The practice questions can be good, but sometimes there are differences of opinion in interpreting a question, so bring up your questions. We will start Ch 3, on chemical calculations. We will emphasize Sect 3 for now; don't be intimidated by the length of this Ch.
Actual: About as planned. We explored the relationship between the macroscopic and particulate levels of viewing matter. For Ch 3, we introduced dimensional analysis, and had some discussion of measurements and the metric system. In effect, we covered Sect 3-4, and do not plan any class time for Sect 2; if you want some help with scientific notation, including using it on your calculator, please check with me.
3 handouts: Ch 5, periodic table (see next sentence), comment sheet (not posted here). The periodic table handout is the one posted here on my Download page.

Class 1, Feb 2. Plan: Introduction to the course. Introduction to chemistry. We will then start Ch 2, on Matter and Energy. I will not assume that you have read anything in advance for this class. But if you do get a book before the class, begin to look over Ch 1-2. See the Ch 1-2 handout for guidance. (If you do not yet have our book, but have any other chem book, it might be useful to look over the corresponding chapter of that book.)
Actual: About as planned. We spent some time exploring the nature of chemistry, as one of the natural sciences. We then began to discuss Ch 2. We talked about "matter" and introduced the idea that there are about 100 elementary forms of matter, called the chemical elements. Some elements are more "important" than others (depending in part on context). Further, the elements are grouped into families, which further simplifies our study of them. We introduced the distinction between "chemical" and "physical" changes.
Handouts (5): Ch 1-2 handout, Ch 3 handout, sign-in form (not posted here), Syllabus (not posted here), Class e-mail list information (not posted here). (The Syllabus is also available here as a web page.)

Textbook. If possible, get a textbook before the first class. The textbook is listed in the Syllabus, with information on how to get it. Please note that only the basic textbook is required.

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